Essay on Metacognitive Processes from Professional Writers
Studying the cognitive processes of human beings, cognitive psychologists use a limited amount of data. Usually, during the experiments, people solve specific tasks, and psychologists measure the reaction time, the accuracy of the solution of these tasks, the type of decisions people make. The psychologists draw conclusions about the cognitive processes that take place in the human brain with regard to the obtained results. However, this is not a limit of the cognitive processes of the human being. Our brain processes both information we receive from the external sources and data we already have in our brain. In particular, other cognitive processes may serve as the object of other cognitive processes. They are called metacognitive ones. First of all, you need to understand what is cognitive psychology and the history of its development. It will allow you to understand better the essay you are about to read.
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How to measure metacognitive processes? How to monitor them? As a rule, in order to study them, confidence evaluation is used. This is a typical metacognitive process. People solve some tasks, and the scientists measure how accurately they cope with them and how fast they do it and how confident people are in these situations.
There is a typical example. Do you remember the television game “Jeopardy!”? In the final round, participants simultaneously answer the same question. They write the answer on the tablet, then the answers are compared. However, at the same time, participants also bet on their answer. If they answer incorrectly, the amount they have bet is deducted from their account. If the answer is correct, this amount is added accordingly. The amount of money people bet represents metacognitive processes, in other words, the assessment of the plausibility of the answer that a participant gives.
It is essential to study metacognitive processes due to several reasons. First, it is interesting. One of the primary functions of consciousness or properties of consciousness is reflexivity, that is, the ability of a person to track own cognitive processes and to tell others about them. This is a unique ability of the human being which is peculiar only to certain primates. The second point is that the metacognitive processes allow us to obtain useful information about the primary cognitive processes, and processing of data from the external sources. There is a new essay for our readers which will tell you about such a phenomenon as multiculturalism and the grounds for its emergence and development http://star-writers.com/blog/essay-on-multiculturalism-why-does-this-approach-fail.
The third reason for metacognitive processes being now lively studied is their application in medical psychology. Over the past decades, it appeared that most mental disorders are connected with the disorders of metacognitive processes. For example, people with certain types of schizophrenia have a severely impaired ability to assess the adequacy of their cognitive processes, their confidence, how their actions are connected to changes in the external environment.
The origins of metacognitive processes studying
Considering the history of the study of metacognitive processes, one can distinguish several stages that are mainly related to those branches of cognitive science studied these processes. The first study dedicated to the metacognitive processes was in the frame of memory studies. In the 1960s – 1970s, when the mechanisms of memory were already sufficiently described, the researchers turned to questions of how people evaluate their abilities to memorize and reproduce information. The retrospective metacognition and prospective one were studied. Retrospective metacognition is an evaluation of the reproducing information or how well you memorized information you’ve heard or read a week ago. Prospective metacognitions is, on the contrary, your assessment of how you will reproduce information you’ve heard or read in a week. With regard to this fact, we want to share with you our tips on memory improvement which our writers use to write the best papers in the world. You can use them for your own benefit.
In addition, many interesting effects have been described. One of them is the effect when a person wants to say something, and he or she realizes what should be said, but the words seem to vanish from the memory. The person knows exactly what should be said, but due to some unknown reasons, he or she just can't. This is an excellent example to show you that metacognition actually takes place in our brain since you know that you have this information, but you can use it in this very moment.
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The next step in the study of metacognitive processes was to examine the role they play in learning, for example, at school. These studies were actively discussed in the 80–90s of the 20th century. Thanks to these studies, the scientists figured out that metacognitive abilities are a potent predictor of children’s progress. It turns out that even pupils with the low IQ, as a result, show academic performance comparable to bright pupils, merely because they adequately evaluate their knowledge, and accordingly, they can use some techniques to eliminate the existing gaps. You are likely to have a lot of written assignments to be done, but you are concerned about the grammar. All you need to do is to order professional paper editing service on our website, and everything will be done shortly.
The next branch of psychology which paid attention to the problem of metacognition was the cognitive psychology aimed at such cognitive process as visual perception. Larry Weiskranz conducted several experiments with patients who suffered from blind eye syndrome. Due to this syndrome, a person sees only something to the right or to the left. The peculiarity of this disease is that it is observed in case of injuries of the primary visual cortex. The eye, the visual apparatus, the optic nerve is undamaged but for the primary visual cortex which is responsible for the processing of the visual information on the preliminary stage. If a person has left the side of the visual cortex is damaged, the right side of the visual field is blurred and vice versa. This essay on critical thinking written by our team which we consider to be a perfect addition to the information given in this essay. Follow the link http://star-writers.com/blog/critical-thinking-essay-the-best-ways-of-self-development.
Weiskranz conducted the following experiments with such patients. He set a simple task: they needed to tell which picture they see - a circle or a square. It is not complicated, but if the picture was placed in the blind zone, then the patients could not tell what was in front of them. However, when the subjects were asked to guess which figure is on the screen, they gave a correct answer with surprisingly high accuracy which reached 90%. Those who supervised the experiment thought that these patients have no blind zone and they see everything. Another successful example of how the primary cognitive process occurs is visual perception. We process visual information categorizing objects into different classes. Our grammar editing services will help you to make all the mistakes in your essay disappear to reach perfection.
Another branch of psychology which focused on the metacognitive processes is the one, which studies such a phenomenon as thinking. In this area, there is an old dichotomy that is still relevant: thinking and solving problems in an effective way and solving problems with the help of creative thinking. A good solution predisposes that a person uses techniques and heuristics solve a particular problem. Unlike this type of solution, creative thinking involves reinterpreting a situation, a sharp understanding of the correct answer and, as a rule, is accompanied by an emotional signal usually called an insight. Many researchers actually believe that there is no fundamental difference between the two types of thinking and everything can be reduced to the systematic use of known heuristics. If you want a perfect essay written by the experts, just buy argumentative essay at star-writers.com, and we will make sure of it.
Janet Metcalfe conducted the following experiment in the late 1980s. She gave the subjects two types of tasks based on two ways of thinking. Every 15 seconds, the subjects had to assess how far he or she got to the solution of the problem, marking it on the scale. If they put the mark closer to the left pole of the scale, it meant that they are far from being close to the solution. If they put it closer to the right pole, it meant that the solution is almost found. This week, it is high time to get academic papers editing service at a considerable discount! Every customer can get a personal discount code via our online chat.
It turned out that with an objective approach to the solution of the reproductive task, the estimated proximity of the solution gradually increases. That is, the less time remains the proximity of the solution. At the same time, there was no common pattern for all the types of subjects. At the same time, no particular pattern was observed when solving insight problems. However, when it was only 16 seconds left to solve the problem, the subjects understood how to cope with it. Janet Metcalf and other researchers also consider this experiment to be strong evidence that there are in fact fundamentally different basic cognitive processes. It is the example when the study of metacognitive processes revealed the secrets of basic cognitive processes. Our writers know for sure that hardworking is a key to achieving any goal and they want to share a couple of tips on hardworking for the students who like to read our essays http://star-writers.com/blog/improve-your-life-with-the-hard-work-essay.
The first theoretical models for explaining or describing metacognitive processes were single-system models. The scientists assumed that the same information was the basis of the primary cognitive and metacognitive processes. For example, if one is asked to compare two sound signals, it will be much easier to complete this task if the difference will be huge than if it will be slight. The followers of single-system models suggest that the difference between the volumes of these signals affects the accuracy of the solutions, the time spent solving the task and the confidence in the decision made. There is an online grammar editor for hire waiting for you at Star-writers.com. Let the professionals do the job while you are relaxing.
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It turned out that as a rule, metacognitions do not coincide with the primary cognitive processes. Hakvan Lau of the University of California, Los Angeles, one of the modern researchers interested in this problem, conducted experiments that formed the basis of his metacognition model. In these experiments, he simulated the blind spot syndrome for the healthy subjects. The subjects were shown the pictures with the squares and circles which they were supposed to classify. However, in order to create the necessary conditions, there was a significant obstacle for visual perception. The subjects were allowed to the see the pictures only for a very brief period with a constant noise all over the place. Buy admission essay from star-writers.com to get a pleasant discount for the next order which you can share with your friend as well. Order now!
Hakvan Lau achieved two experimental situations. Both situations showed the same level of proximity which reached 80%. Due to the fact that the type of noise was different, in one situation people absolutely clearly saw all the stimuli, and when they were asked to say whether they saw the stimulus or gave an answer randomly, people answered that they saw absolutely everything. In another situation, people responded that they did not see a stimulus. It means that the subjective experience was completely different, while the accuracy of determining the presented picture was the same. This is an excellent example of how the metacognitive process varies with a stable primary process. There is no need to do all the homework all alone if you are a student. You can order affordable essay at Star-writers.com. Our prices are very low!
In these studies, the activation of the brain was also studied using functional magnetic resonance tomography. Those areas of the cortex which correlate with visual awareness, that is, with the metacognitive process have been identified. It was the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In the following studies of the Lau group, the researchers intentionally affected this cortex using the transcranial magnetic stimulation method, which allows purposefully study the necessary areas of the brain in a non-invasive way that is without opening the skull. When researchers analyzed the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the same task, it appeared that the metacognitive process varied under the influence of experimenters with the preservation of the primary cognitive process at the same level. The best college essay help is waiting for you at Star-writers.com. You just need to make your choice.
Metacognitive processes and artificial intelligence
These experiments became the foundations for the hierarchical models of metacognition, according to which the existence of several separate modules in the brain responsible for primary cognitive processes and for secondary, i.e., metacognitive, processes. Another crucial problem our writers want to discuss is the internet and myth about addiction connected to it. In this essay, they tried to study this topic at least a little be to figure out the triggers of this problem http://star-writers.com/blog/essay-about-internet-are-you-addicted-to-it.
The development of neural network models of metacognition processes takes place while basic concepts of these processes are studied. If classical artificial neural networks can learn, for example, to classify objects into two types, then metacognitive neural network models look like this: one network learns to perform the task of classification, and the second learns to predict whether the correct network responds or not. Such models demonstrate the same patterns of metacognition, as people have. That is, it shows confidence, and the second network, in fact, evaluates confidence. It is possible to fix the behavior of the network, which resembles the conscious behavior of the human being in general. The artificial intelligence is another good topic for the discussion. However, this time we just want to share this article on the benefits and risks of artificial intelligence for the humankind and what should we expect in the future.
There is another example concerning artificial intelligence is called IBM Watson machine which several years ago overmatched one the strongest English speaking players in “Jeopardy!”. Watson both understands questions in natural language to find the answer and knows how to bet on its responses. It turns out that IBM has a whole department that teaches it how to evaluate its answers properly. This is not such an easy task, and researchers in the field of artificial intelligence are now engaged in studying this phenomenon. Ready to buy a college essay from a professional team of writers? You are welcome to place an order at Star-writers.com.
The metacognitive processes are cognitive processes aimed at other cognitive processes. The basis of the metacognitive processes, apparently, is the individual structures in the brain that provide them. One of the most important scientific problems of the 21st century is the study of metacognitive processes. In addition, soon we should expect a lot of exciting inventions and discoveries in the world of cognitive science, metacognitive processes and artificial intelligence as well. There are plenty of other branches of psychology which might be interesting to you. We hope you will enjoy studying psychology as well as we do.