Global Ecological Issues in Environmental Essay
The ecological concern is one of the universal concerns of our present days. It’s directly connected with questions of resource deficiency, ecological safety and ecological disaster. One way to solve the ecological difficulty is the way of "sustainability", suggested as the chief option to the growth of human civilization.
Essay on environmental issues discloses global problems
Scientific and technological progress has put before mankind several new, very complex problems which it has not encountered before at all, or problems which have not been so large-scale. Among them, a special place is occupied by the relationship connecting a person with the surroundings. In the 20th century, the burden on nature was due to a 4-fold growth in the populace and an 18-fold rise in the amount of global production. Scholars say that approximately from the 1960s to the 1970s alterations in the ecology under man’s impact have become worldwide, i.e. influencing all corners of the planet with no exception, thus, such issues began to be referred to global. Those who need more custom essay papers on this or any other topic should contact our essay writers.
The most pressing ecological issues are:
• climatological changes of the Earth;
• contamination of air;
• ozone layer depletion;
• exhaustion of freshwater resources and contamination of the waters of the global ocean;
• land pollution, damage of soil mantle;
• depletion of biodiversity, etc.
The crisis of the ecology
The environment is that part of nature with which human society directly interacts in its life and economic activities. Although the second part of the XX century is the period of unprecedented rates of economic growth, but it increasingly began to be carried out without thorough consideration of the possibilities of the ecological environment, permissible economic loads on it. Therefore, environmental degradation occurs.
Irrational nature management
As a case of dreadful conditions of the ecological environment as a consequence of irrational nature management, deforestation and depletion of land resources may be cited in such an environmental issues essay. The course of deforestation is expressed in the decrease of the region under natural vegetation, primarily forestry. According to various estimates, before the emergence of farming and animal husbandry, 62 million km2 of land enclosed forests, and taking into account bushes and copses, 75 million km2, or 56% of its entire exteriority. As an outcome of the 10,000 years of forest destruction, the spot has been reduced to 40 million km2, and the average forest cover to 30%. In this essay on human evolution you will find out facts about evolution of people. Today, deforestation continues at an ever-increasing rate: about 100 thousand km2 are reduced annually. Forest massifs disappear with the expansion of land and pasture land, the growth of logging. Especially the threatening situation has developed in the zone of tropical forests, in such countries as Brazil, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand.
As a result of the processes of soil degradation, about 7 million hectares of fertile land is discarded annually from the world agricultural turnover. The main causes of this process are growing urbanization, water and wind erosion, as well as chemical (clogging with heavy metals, chemical compounds) and physical (degradation of soil cover in mountain, construction and other works) degradation. The progression of soil degradation is particularly intensive in drylands, which occupy nearly 6 million km2 and are mainly characteristic of Asia and Africa. Within the drylands, the major desertification areas are also located, where due to high rates of growth in the rural population, overgrazing of livestock, deforestation and irrational irrigation result in anthropogenic desertification (60,000 km2 per year). If you ask to type an essay online on any topic, our experts can be of great help.
Pollution of the surroundings with waste
Another cause for the deprivation of the nature is contamination by waste productions of man's productive and non-productive activities. Such droppings are divided into hard, liquid and gaseous.
The next calculations are indicative. At present, about 20 tons of raw materials are manufactured and grown per capita on the average. Only 50 km3 of fossil rock (more than 1000 billion tons) are extracted from the earth’s depth, which are converted into 2 tons of final product, 50% of which is emitted immediately, the rest goes to the deferred waste.
The structure of solid waste is dominated by industrial and mining waste. In general, and per capita, they are particularly large in the US, Russia, Japan. On the per capita basis of solid domestic waste, leadership belongs to the United States, where each inhabitant produces 800 kg of garbage per year. When students ask us ‘please do my assignment’, we are always ready to assist.
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The liquid wastes contaminate primarily the hydrosphere with sewage and oil as the main contaminants. The total volume of sewage at the beginning of the XXI century was about 1860 km3. To dilute 1 volume unit of contaminated wastewater to an acceptable level, an average of 10 to 100 or even 200 units of clean water is required. Asia, North America and Europe account for about 90% of the world's total wastewater discharge. To know how to train responsibility and start standing by one’s deeds follow this link: http://star-writers.com/blog/be-responsible-with-the-personal-responsibility-essay
As a result, the degradation of the aquatic environment has become global these days. Approximately 1.3 billion people use only contaminated water in household use. And 2.5 billion people experience a chronic need of fresh water that is the root of numerous epidemic maladies. Because of effluence of watercourses and marines, the opportunities for fishing are reduced. We will help write an essay all students who need to get more information about this or any needed theme.
Effluence of the atmosphere by dust and gaseous waste, which emissions are directly related to the combustion of mineral oils and biomass, as well as to mountain, construction and additional excavations (2/3 of all emissions from developed countries of the West, including the USA - 120 million tons) causes alarm. Examples of major pollutants mentioned in each essay about environment are usually solids, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Annually, about 60 million tons of particulate contaminants are released into the earth's air which contribute to the development of factory mist and decrease the transparency of the atmosphere. You may choose to pay someone to write your paper and receive an essay on this theme.
Sulfur dioxide (100 million tons) and nitrogen oxides (about 70 million tons) are the major sources of acid rain. A big and dangerous aspect of the ecological crisis is the influence on the low level of atmosphere of greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon dioxide enters the air environment mainly as a consequence of burning of mineral oil (2/3 of all releases). The supplies of methane emissions are biomass burning, some types of agricultural production, gas leakage from oil and gas wells. The international community decided to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 50% by the middle of the 21st century. In developed countries, relevant laws and regulations have been adopted for this purpose (for example, a special tax on carbon dioxide emission).
One of the aspects of the ecological problem is the decrease of biological diversity. The genetic diversity of the world is estimated at 10-20 million species. Damage in this sphere is already quite noticeable. It is owing to the destruction of the habitat of flora and fauna, excessive exploitation of farming resources, contamination of the surroundings. According to the calculations of American scholars, during the previous 200 years, about 900 thousand species of plant life and beasts disappeared on Earth. In the second part of the XX century the progression of decline of the gene pool has sharply accelerated, and in case current tendencies persist the disappearance of 1/5 of all species that now inhabit our planet may occur. Learn about ethics of cloning in this essay on cloning.
The greenhouse effect
The course of action of the hothouse effect is the following. Sun rays striking the Earth are taken up by the exterior of the ground, plants, water surface, etc. Heated surfaces give off thermal energy back to the air environment, but already in the type of long-wave radiation.
Atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon) do not absorb thermal radiation from the planet's facade, and scatter it instead. However, as a consequence of combustion of fossil oils and supplementary production processes, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, various hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, propane, etc.) accumulate in the sky that don’t dissipate but absorb thermal radiation from the planet's exterior. The consequential screen leads to a hothouse effect that is called global warming.
Global warming is probably the major significant consequence of anthropogenic pollution of the biological sphere. It manifests itself in climate and biota change equally: the production procedure in natural units, the shift of the boundaries of plant formations, the alteration in crop yields. Especially strong changes can affect high and medium latitudes. According to forecasts, it’s here that the temperature of the atmosphere will for the most part rise markedly. The nature of these regions is particularly susceptible to different impacts and is extremely slow to recover.
As an outcome of the rise in temperature, the taiga zone would move to the north by about 100-200 km. The rise of the ocean point due to warming (dissolution of ice and glaciers) may get up to 0.2 m, which will lead to the flooding of the estuaries of big rivers.
The rise in temperature as a result of the greenhouse effect threatens with unprecedented ecological, economic and social consequences. The water level in the oceans can rise by 1-2 m due to sea water and the melting of polar ice. (Due to the greenhouse effect, the level of the World Ocean in the XX century has already risen by 10-20 cm.) It is established that a sea level rise of 1 mm leads to a coastline deviation of 1.5 m.
A rise in temperature will cause a decline in ground humidity in many areas of the planet. Droughts and typhoons will become a familiar phenomenon. The ice cover of the Arctic would be decreased by 15%. In the current century in the Northern Hemisphere, ice cover of rivers and lakes will hold for 2 weeks less than in the XX century. Ice will dissolve in the mountains of South America, Africa, China and Tibet. If you hire essay editor online, you will get professional help with writing on any topic.
The overall warming will also affect the state of the woods of the planet. Forest vegetation can exist in rather narrow limits of warmth and humidity. The majority of it may die, a complex ecological system will occur at the stage of destruction, and this will entail a catastrophic decline in the genetic diversity of plant life. As a consequence of worldwide warming on Earth already in the second part of the XXI century can disappear from a quarter to half of the variety of ground flora and fauna. Even under the mainly favorable conditions, by the middle of the century, an immediate threat of extinction will hang over almost 10% of land animals and plants.
Research in environmental essays has shown that in order to avoid a global catastrophe, it is necessary to reduce carbon emissions to 2 billion tonnes per year (one-third of current volume). Taking into account the natural growth of the population, by 2030-2050 per capita should be emitted not more than 1/8 of the carbon that today is due on average per capita in Europe. To know more about earthquakes which can also pollute the atmosphere, read this post: http://star-writers.com/blog/essay-about-earthquakes-as-main-topic-for-humanity
The expansion of world technical development, populace expansion and inadequate exploitation of the Earth's natural assets has led to the emergence of severe universal issues in the sphere of ecology. Abuse of the natural equilibrium is marked at the narrow and worldwide plane in the shape of worsening of the ecological condition, climate and other alterations on the globe. This issue is extremely relevant in the modern world. It’s high time for mankind to think about the rational usage of natural assets, and the preservation of the ecology.
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