Cheap Essays On McClelland Motivation Theory


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Our cheap reliable essay writing service wants to pay your attention to one of the most prominent motivation theories developed by American scientist David McClelland.

Among dozens of various motivation theories, one of the most prominent theories is the theory of American psychologist, professor, and developer of the newest methods for Thematic Apperception Test, David McClelland. In this essay, we will describe his theory of needs which is the basis for his approach to motivation studying.

Theory of needs

David McClelland singled out three groups of needs that influence our motivation. These groups are the following: a need for power, need for achievements and need for affiliation.  Let's examine each group separately to understand why they affect our motivation so much.

1. Need for power

We've place need for power in the first place deliberately since it is the most important. People always string for controlling people’s actions in order to influence their behavior. People in this group are divided into two types:

The first group of people in need of power do it for the sake of power itself. They are more eager to control and influence other people. The interests of the society, their subordinates, and the company are out of their interest. The second group of people in need of power want to solve various conflicts and problems by means of their influence. Once they get the power they start coming up with different tasks for their subordinates so they could take part in goals achieving process. They seek for the power not to satisfy their own mercantile desires but to do something great by means of the influence they have. There are actually five strong sources of power you might use to achieve your goals. Use each of them wisely.

2. Need for achievements

The need for achievement is usually connected with the successful work. People are striving to succeed by means of completing difficult tasks so they could be praised and appreciated by others. For example, the need for achievements of the head is the desire to put at risk all the company in order to achieve a certain goal. In case if he or she understands that it will result in a fail, he or she will refuse to participate such activity in order not to be responsible for the failure. Such a person will do his or her best not to save the reputation without screwing everything up.  The need for achievement as the motivation to achieve the goals is peculiar to all the people but it affects them in a different way. However, the future success of an individual and his or her effectiveness at work will depend on it. Moreover, the lack of progress might result in depression which significantly decreases our workability. This essay will help you to defeat your depression

It is impossible not to mention the contribution to the McClelland’s theory of the American psychologist John Atkinson. According to his ideas, the need for achievement must be considered alongside with the desire to avoid failures. Atkinson found out that people highly motivated to achieve their goals are intended to succeed while people less motivated just want to avoid failures.

This update made by Atkinson later resulted in the development of the theory of subjectively preferred risks developed by Atkinson and McClelland. According to this theory, motivation to succeed and motivation to avoid failures are determining factors that influence the choice of the optimal day to take risky decisions. People motivated to succeed prefer the moderate level of risk. They do their best to avoid the situations that have the highest chances to fail but they always avoid situations with the minimal risks to fail since these ones are unlikely to result in success. Thus their success in case of the average risk depends on the efforts put at work. What is the worst enemy you have in this case? It is your laziness and there are effective ways to get rid of laziness influence on your actions.

Therefore, we come to the conclusion that people motivated to succeed are eager to set goals with moderate risks despite the fact that they might also fail but their success will directly depend from their own efforts (from their knowledge and skills). Therefore, people less motivated to achieve the success are eager to choose the path of least resistance or minimal risks in order to avoid the failure. However, sometimes, the second group of people might choose the riskiest way but they are not actually concerned by the outcome.

3. Need for affiliation

The need for affiliation is explained by our need to be a part of something. Besides work, it is also connected with socializing, day-to-day activities or certain cultural or intellectual issues. People with the need for affiliation usually striving for participating something since they want to be praised by others and especially by the people whose opinion they consider to be valuable. We are really afraid of being dismissed and forgotten and this fear controls all our actions coercing us to make wrong decisions. Do not let your fear control your mind


The McClelland's theory of needs draws the attention of the Western society to the entrepreneur and its main characteristics which are initiative and the ability to take risks once again. One of the most important conclusions of the McClelland’s theory directly affects the motivation of the entrepreneur's abilities in society in general. The scientist supported the idea that a society motivated to succeed is capable of raising motivated and active entrepreneurs able to improve the economic development of the country. The entrepreneurs should be prepared to take risks and this very ability influences the motivation to attain goals.

In addition, the research in the field of human motivation, according to the theory we consider in this essay, proves that people in need for achieving success are more likely to succeed since they are more confident and motivated while people with no need for succeeding at all always fail since put too many efforts trying to avoid the failure rather than accept it or succeed. The fits group of people are more active and creative since their desire to attain their goals serves as a source of inspiration. Moreover, they are not in need of appreciation from other people.

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Another question McClelland was reflecting on how the motivation to succeed is developed and can be developed. According to his opinion, in this case, it is better to apply to humanistic pedagogy where the relations "superior-subordinate" are substituted by the relations "teacher-motivated disciple". It is very important that both parents in the very childhood and the employers set high standards of behavior and children and employees should be well appreciated when they meet these high standards. Thus, the result of motivation to succeed in development should result in the formation of such personal features like self-reliance and dedication so that this individual could be able to take risks and responsibility for the failure. This is the only way to success.

Therefore, the counties that want to introduce high standards of behavior in order to ameliorate economic growth should take certain measures developed by David McClelland:

  • All the traditional methods should be given up in favor of new ones and favorable conditions for the development of each member of society should be created;

  • It is necessary to maintain the standards of high efficiency and maximum productivity that will result in the increasing of the motivation to meet these standards;

  • It is important to distribute the labor resources more carefully and wisely. Each employee should work in the field where he or she is able to achieve the highest level of productivity and promote the development of the company in general. Moreover, all the achievements should be awarded and appreciated by the employers since, as was already mentioned, people are seeking praise and this is one of the strongest sources of motivation.

This essay contains the essentials of McClelland motivation theory. There is plenty of additional information on this account on the internet but this one will be enough to understand how it works and what may actually influence our effectiveness and coerce us to attain unobtainable goals. Do not doubt that you are also influenced by these needs and you will definitely realize that as soon as you face difficulties. Customize the approaches listed in this essay in order to create your own one and work effectively.

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